METHODS OF INDICATING AND DESCRIBING INTONATION IN ENGLISH
Keywords:Intonation, pitch, tone, auto segment, accent, linguistic and paralinguistic purposes, Speech timbre
This article deals with various methods of expressing intonation in the English language. Variations in the voice's pitch are the main factors in intonation. Furthermore, two of the most popular models of intonation are presented, which should be helpful for second language teachers and textbook authors for their own research and for the creation of course material. In the English language, it is frequently accompanied by stress and rhythm to produce meaning. It is also easier for readers to understand recent primary material on the characteristics of intonation, particularly in relation to languages. With this, it is expected that findings from theoretical research will be used in the language classroom. Despite being a difficult language to learn, it is rarely taught systematically. Although a lot of the early research on intonation was didactic in character, more experimental or rigorous studies have been done recently. This has caused a disconnect between intonation as it is utilized in instruction and intonation research, making it challenging for second language teachers to employ the findings of such studies. In this article, I cover the various strategies that intonation might take and the fundamental topics addressed in contemporary theoretical study.
Crystal, David1987 The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Cambridge University Press.
Crystal, David1969 Prosodic Systems and Intonation in English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cruttenden, Alan 1986 Intonation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gussenhoven, Carlos 2004 The Phonology of Tone and Intonation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ladd, D. Robert 1996 Intonational Phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Roach, Peter J. 1994 ‘Conversion between prosodic transcription systems: “Standard British” and ToBI’, Speech Communication,15, 91-99.
Williams, Briony 1996b The formulation of an intonation transcription system for British English. In: G. Knowles & P.R. Alderson (eds.), Working with Speech: The Computational Analysis of Formal British English Speech. London: Longmans.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 IEJRD
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.